Assoc. Prof. Dr. Balakrishnan Muniapan

Name of Staff: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Balakrishnan Muniapan
Designation: Assoc. Prof. in Human Resource Management
Qualifications: B.Econs (UKM), CIWT (AUST), MSc(HRM) (Portsmouth), DBA (Philippines)

Course Development Experience:

Principles and Practice of Management, Strategic Management, Strategic Human Resource Management, Human Resource Development, International Human Resource Management and Employment Laws and Industrial Relations

Research Interest:   

Vedanta in HRM, Organisational Behaviour, Leadership, Human Resource Development, Employment Laws and Industrial Relations


Complete list is available in Google Scholar at Click and ResearchGate at

Selected Recent Book Chapters:

1.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B, Gregory, ML. and Ling, L.A. (2018).¬† ‚ÄúMarketing Education in Sarawak: Looking at It from the Employers’ Perspective‚ÄĚ in Business Education and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Application, IGI Global, Pennsylvania, Chapter 36, pp.688-706.

2.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B.¬†(2017). ‚ÄúPhilosophy and Management: The Relevance of Vedanta in Management‚ÄĚ in Managerial Strategies and Solutions for Business Success in Asia, IGI Global, Pennsylvania, Chapter 7, pp.124-139.

3.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B and Dass, M (2016). ‚ÄúExpanding the Vedantic virtues into business ethics: A leadership perspective‚ÄĚ in Indian Culture and Work Organisations in Transition (edited by Malik. A and Pereira. V), ¬†Routledge, New York.

4.¬†¬†¬†¬† Satpathy, B and Muniapan, B (2016), ‚ÄúAncient Wisdom for Transformational Leadership and Its Insights from the Bhagavad-Gita‚ÄĚ in Managerial Strategies and Practice in the Asian Business Sector, IGI Global, Pennsylvania, Chapter 1, pp.1-10.

5.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B.¬†(2015). ‚ÄúLabour Relations and International Business: The Doctrine of Constructive Dismissal and Labour Relations in Malaysia‚ÄĚ, in Liam Leonard,¬†Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez (ed.) Beyond the UN Global Compact: Institutions and Regulations (Advances in Sustainability and Environmental Justice, Volume 17)¬†Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.291 ‚Äď 315.

6.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2015).‚ÄĚThe Bhagavad-Gita and business ethics: a leadership perspective‚ÄĚ, in Dasho Karma Ura & Patricia Ordonez de Pablos (ed.), Asian business and management practices: trends and global considerations. IGI Global, Pennsylvania, Chapter 18, pp.¬† 227-246.

7.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., and Jalarajan, S.R. (2014). ‚ÄúCorporate Social Responsibility Communication from the Vedantic, Dharmic and Karmic Perspectives‚ÄĚ, in Ralph Tench, William Sun, Brian Jones (ed.) Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility: Perspectives and Practice (Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Volume 6), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, London, pp.337-354.

8.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2014). ‚ÄúThe Roots of Indian Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Practice from a Vedantic Perspective‚ÄĚ in¬† KCP Low, SO Idowu and SL Ang in Corporate Social Responsibility in Asia, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp.19-34.

Selected Recent Journal Articles:

1.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B and Satpathy, B. (2013). ‚ÄúThe dharma and karma of CSR from the Bhagavad-Gita‚ÄĚ, Journal of Human Values, Vol. 19, No 2 October, pp. 173-188.

2.¬†¬†¬†¬† Satpathy, B., Muniapan, B. and Dass, M. (2013). ‚ÄėUNESCAP‚Äôs characteristics of good governance from the philosophy of Bhagavad-Gita and its contemporary relevance in the Indian context‚Äô, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.192‚Äď212.

3.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan. B. and Low, Patrick (2011). ‚ÄúAsian Leadership Wisdom: The Relevance of Kautilyan and Confucian Values for Leadership Development‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management, Volume2, Number 4,¬† October-December 2011, pp. 10-19.

4.¬†¬†¬†¬† Low, Patrick and Muniapan. B. (2011). ‚ÄúThe Essential Leadership Wisdom of the Bhagavad-Gita‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management, Volume 2 Number 4, October-December 2011, pp. 1-9.

5.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan. B. and Rajantheran, M (2011). ‚ÄúEthics (business ethics) from Thirukurral and its Relevance for Contemporary Business Leadership in the Indian Context‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp.453‚Äď471.

6.¬†¬†¬†¬† Low, Patrick and Muniapan. B. (2011). ‚ÄúOrganisational Development and the Hindu Trinity: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva on Leadership, Culture and Change‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp.491‚Äď505.

7.¬†¬†¬†¬† Lee, M.H., Ling, L.A., Muniapan, B., and Gregory, M.L. (2011). ‚ÄúGeneral enterprising tendency (GET) and recommendations to boost entrepreneurship education in Sarawak‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Asian Business and Information Management, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.32-47.

8.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan. B. and Satpathy, B, (2010). ‚ÄúAncient Indian Wisdom for Managers: The Relevance of Valmiki Ramayana in Developing Managerial Effectiveness‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Volume 3, No 6,¬† 2010, pp. 645-668.

9.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., and Dass, M (2009). ‚ÄúAn Indian Leadership Perspective from Literature Works of Poet Kannadasan‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Vol 2, Number 4, 2009, pp. 326-340.

10.¬†¬†¬† Bisawajit. S, Muniapan. B. (2008). ‚ÄúThe Knowledge of ‚ÄúSelf‚ÄĚ from the Bhagavad-Gita and its Significance for Human Capital Development‚ÄĚ, Asian Social Science‚ÄĚ, Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 143-150.

11.¬†¬†¬† Abdullah, M.M., Korean, S.,¬†Parasuraman, B., Muniapan, B., Jones, M., and Afshari, M. (2008). ‚ÄúMotivating Factors Associated with Adult Participation in Distance Learning Programmes‚ÄĚ: ‚ÄúInternational Education Studies‚ÄĚ, Volume. 1, Number 4, pp. 104-109.

12.¬†¬†¬† Abdullah, M.M., Korean, S., Muniapan, B., Rathakrishnan, B., and Parasuraman, B. (2008). ‚ÄúAdult participation in self-directed learning programmes‚ÄĚ, International Education Studies‚ÄĚ, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 66-72.

13.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., and Dass, M (2008). ‚ÄúCorporate Social Responsibility: A Philosophical Approach from an Ancient Indian Perspective‚ÄĚ International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Volume 1, Number 4, 2008, pp. 408- 420.

14.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2008). ‚ÄúKautilya‚Äôs Arthashastra and Perspectives on Organisational Management‚ÄĚ, Asian Social Science, Volume. 4, Number. 1, in January 2008, pp. 31-35.

15.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2008). ‚ÄúPerspectives and Reflections on Management Education in Malaysia‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Management in Education, Volume 2, Number 1, 2008, pp. 77-87.

16.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. and Parasuraman, B (2007). ‚ÄúMisconduct, Domestic Inquiry and Rules of Natural Justice in the Context of Malaysian Employment Relations‚ÄĚ, Malayan Law Journal, Number 6, pp. cxlix ‚Äď clxviii.

17.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2007). ‚ÄúTransformational Leadership Style Demonstrated by Sri Rama in Valmiki Ramayana‚ÄĚ, International Journal of Indian Culture and Business Management, Volume 1, Number 1, 2007 pp. 104-115.

18.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., and Shaikh, J., (2007). ‚ÄúLessons in Corporate Governance from Kautilya‚ÄôsArthashastra in Ancient India‚ÄĚ, World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, Special Issue on: ‚ÄúAccounting Standards Convergence, Corporate Governance and Sustainability Practices in East Asia‚ÄĚ, Volume 3, Number 1, 2007 pp. 50 -61.

19.¬†¬†¬† Krishnan, A., Muniapan, B., Lew T.Y., and Kong E.E.F., (2005). ‚ÄúExploring the Extent of Transformational Leadership in the Context of Miri Entrepreneurs‚ÄĚ, Sarawak Development Journal, Volume 7, Number 1, 2005 pp. 48-63.

Selected Recent Conference Proceedings:

1.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B (2013). ‚ÄúIncorporating the Bhagavad-Gita into Business Ethics: A Leadership Perspective‚ÄĚ, 5th International Conference on Rhetoric and Narratives in Management Research, a joint collaboration between ESADE and RSM, Erasmus University, 25-27 March, 2013, ESADE, Barcelona, Spain.

2.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B (2012). ‚ÄúThe concept of individual social responsibility, corporate social responsibility and global social responsibility from the Bhagavad-Gita‚ÄĚ, ADERSE 9th International Congress 2012 on CSR, Globalisation, Normalisation: New Issues Induced by Crisis, 29-30 March, 2012, Nice, France.

3.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2011). ‚ÄúThe duty and action of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from the perspectives of Vedanta‚ÄĚ, 2nd African International Business and Management (AIBUMA) Conference, “Building Synergies for Better Performance‚ÄĚ, Nairobi, Kenya, 24-26 August, 2011.

4. ¬† ¬† Muniapan, B. (2010). ‚ÄúVedanta Philosophy and it Relevance to Corporate Social Responsibility‚ÄĚ, Academy of International Business Southeast Asia Regional Conference: Trends in International Business: Change and Competition Issues, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, December 2-4, 2010.

5.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2010). ‚ÄúThe law of constructive dismissal and the emerging patterns of employment relations in Malaysia‚ÄĚ, 11th International Human Resource Management Conference, Emergence of New Economic Powers: Management of Human Resources in the Challenging Global Context, Aston Business School, Birmingham UK, 9th -12th June 2010.

6.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., (2009). ‚ÄúThe Bhagavad-Gita on Leadership for Good Governance and Sustainable Development‚ÄĚ, 15th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, “Taking up the Global Challenge: Analyzing the Implementation of Innovations and Governance for Sustainable Development”, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, 5-8 July 2009.¬†

7.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., (2009). ‚ÄúThe Bhagavad-Gita and Good Governance: A Leadership Perspective‚ÄĚ, 3nd South and Southeast Asian Association of Study of Culture and Religion (SSEASR) Conference: Waters in South and Southeast Asia: Interaction of Culture and Religion, Institut Seni Indonesia & Universitas Hindu Indonesia, Denpasar, Bali, 3-6 June 2009.

8.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., and Rajantheran, M., (2008). ‚ÄúTransformational leadership from the Bhagavad-Gita and its significance for human capital development‚ÄĚ, 4th National Human Resource Management Conference: Enhancing Organisational Effectiveness through Human Capital, organised by Universiti Utara Malaysia, Tiara Beach Resort, Port Dickson, 17-19 August 2008.

9.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B., (2007). ‚ÄúExploring Spirituality, Religion and Work (SRW) with Reference to the Bhagavad-Gita and Human Resource Management (HRM)‚ÄĚ, 1stInternational Conference on Integrating Spirituality and Organisational Leadership, University of Delhi, India, 8-10 February 2007.

10.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2006). ‚ÄúRethinking Management Education in Malaysian Universities and Institution of Higher Learning‚ÄĚ, Quality in Education: Teaching and Leadership in Challenging Times, An International Conference, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan, 21 ‚Äď 23 February, 2006.

11.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2006). ‚ÄúWork and Employee Relations: An Overview of Constructive Dismissal in Malaysian Employment Relations‚ÄĚ, 3rd National Human Resource Management Conference: Emerging Challenges of the Century, organised by Universiti Utara Malaysia, City Bayview Hotel Langkawi, Kedah, 26 ‚Äď 28 November 2006 ‚Äď Received the¬† Best Research Paper Award.

12.¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2006). ‚ÄúMalaysian Industrial Relations: Domestic Inquiry and the Rules of Natural Justice in the Management of Employment Misconduct‚ÄĚ, UTCC International Conference in Business 2006, Revolution for the New Era Competition,School of Business, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, Bangkok, Thailand 7- 8 December, 2006.

13.¬†¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2006). ‚ÄúCan the Bhagavad-Gita be used as a Manual for Management Development of Indian Managers Worldwide?‚ÄĚ5th Asia Academy of Management Conference, Asian Management: Convergence and Divergence, Tokyo, Japan, 19- 21 December, 2006.

14.¬†¬†¬† Muniapan, B. (2005). ‚ÄúValmiki Ramayana and Leadership: Exploring and Explaining the Transformational Leadership Style of Sri Rama, the son of King Dasaratha‚ÄĚ, International Conference on Sanskrit: Sanskrit in Asia, Unity in Diversity organised by Sanskrit Studies Centre, Silpakorn University, Imperial Queen Park Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand, 23 ‚Äď 26 June, 2005.

15.¬† Muniapan, B., (2004).‚ÄúThe Challenges of Teaching Human Resource Management in People‚Äôs Republic of China‚ÄĚ,Teaching and Learning Forum 2004, Seeking Educational Excellence, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, 9 ‚Äď 10 February, 2004.

16.¬†¬†¬† Lew, T.Y., Muniapan, B., Boniface Ancheh, K.S., Kong, E., and Yong, S.T., (2004). “Entrepreneurship: Personality Profile of Chinese Entrepreneurs who are members of the Miri Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Sarawak, Malaysia”, 18th Annual Conference of Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 8‚Äď11 December, 2004.

Selected Recent invited Presentations:

1.¬†¬†¬†¬† “The Relevance of Valmiki Ramayana for Leadership Education within the Southeast Asian Context‚ÄĚ, International Sanskrit Conference, organized by Sanskrit Studies Centre, Faculty of Archeology, Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 28 January 2018.

2.¬†¬†¬† ‚ÄúSynthesizing Vedantic Ideals with Modern Education‚ÄĚ (Virtual Presentation via Skype), VIT University, India, 21 November 2017.

3.¬†¬† “What the Ramayana can teach us about developing leaders, people and organisations?‚ÄĚ, International Ramayana Conference: Universal Appeal of Ramayana, Civic Centre, Suva, Fiji, 14-16 October, 2016.

4.¬†¬† ‚ÄúValmiki Ramayana and its Relevance for Transformational Leadership‚ÄĚ, International Ramayana Conference: Heal the World Through Ramayana, Ramayana Centre, Union Park, Mauritius, 21-24 August, 2015.

5.¬† ‚ÄúSumbangan Kitab Arthashastra Karangan kautilya (Kurun Ke 4 Sebelum Masehi) Di Dalam Pengurusan Sumber Manusia‚Ä̬†¬† Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Kampus Sungai Long, December 1, 2015.

6.¬†¬† ‚ÄúThe Laws on Dismissal: an HR Perspective‚ÄĚ, Universiti Sains Malaysia, February 2, 2015.

7.¬†¬†¬† ‚ÄúPerformance Management and Retention Strategies‚ÄĚ, FMM Kedah/Perlis HR Conference, Amanpura Hotel, Sungai Petani, Kedah, October 3, 2013.

8.¬†¬†¬† ‚ÄúThe dharma (duty) and karma (action) of CSR from the Vedanta: CSR‚ÄĚ, Universal Value and Harmony in Asia, Nottingham University Business School Malaysia Campus, 23 June 2011.

Official Correspondence Address:

School of Business and Administration,
Wawasan Open University
54, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 10050 Penang Malaysia  

Email Address:


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